Books

What makes mankind behave so atrociously? Ian Buruma and Joanna Bourke investigate

Two books tackle the subject of violence in strikingly different ways

6 December 2014

9:00 AM

6 December 2014

9:00 AM

Theater of Cruelty: Art, Film and the Shadows of War Ian Buruma

NYRB, pp.425, £19.99, ISBN: 9781590177778

Wounding the World: How Military Violence and War-Play Invade Our Lives Joanna Bourke

Virago, pp.320, £20, ISBN: 9780349004327

The first interaction between two men recorded in the Bible involves a murder. In the earliest classic of English literature, one of the murderer’s descendants has his arm ripped from its socket by a young warrior who celebrates his gruesome victory by drinking himself blotto; the next day, our hero wakes up (not hungover, apparently) and kills his opponent’s mother.

Not my cup of tea, Beowulf, or, perhaps, yours. But this is what literature was like until the 18th century or so, when the stakes were lowered and people began writing about inheritances, bishoprics and low-key adultery. Ian Buruma is interested in the other, older kind of story because, as he puts it in the introduction to this wonderful collection of his essays, ‘I am fascinated by what makes the human species behave so atrociously.’

Buruma, who studied Chinese literature at a Dutch university before reporting on Japanese politics for a British newspaper and, eventually, settling down at an American college, seems to have been everywhere and read and seen everything. It shows in Theater of Cruelty, which gathers together 28 pieces from the New York Reviewof Books. Few critics could have written with authority, much less with interest, about half of these topics: Harry Kessler’s diaries, the films of Leni Riefenstahl and Werner Herzog and Clint Eastwood, the Nanking massacre, avant-garde sculpture, kamikazes, the Palestinian economy.

Reading through these essays reminded me of why, as a teenager, I liked the NYRB. Why finish school when here was an education in itself, complete with all the clever titbits one could need in a lifetime of highbrow lunches? ‘Re-reading The Trial, eh? You know Alan Bennett wrote a great play about Kafka. Two actually. In his diaries he tells a great story about the time.…’ It also reminded me that a lot of what ends up in the magazine could have done with some trimming. Buruma writes well, though, even when his subject is bizarre, unpleasant or both. Ushio Shinohara’s Mishima-inspired neo-Dadaist canvases from the mid-1950s, for example, aren’t the sort of thing I’d want hanging in my living room. But the man, I want to read about. Shinohara, he says,

would literally attack the canvas in public performances, like a boxer or a sword fighter, or throw balls of paint about. Compared to Shinohara’s ‘boxing art’, the American action painters of the period were rather tame (and usually better painters, too).


The best thing here is Buruma’s account of the theatrical history of Anne Frank’s Diary. The story is too complicated to recount in detail, but it involves, among other things, a disaffected playwright who went so far as to accuse Anne’s father Otto of collaboration, even suggesting that Simon Wiesenthal investigate his conduct at Auschwitz. (Wiesenthal declined.) The idea that this modest, beautiful book could be the occasion for so much viciousness and bad faith is enough to make anyone take a dim view of human nature. Buruma, though, manages a bit of optimism, and praises Otto for his ‘perhaps naive, but nonetheless admirable, wish to put his own grief to a more universal purpose’ by publishing the diary and allowing it to be adapted.

Thank goodness for the lighter fare. Buruma is also excellent on Mike Leigh’s England (‘tiger-skin-patterned wallpaper, dolls of Spanish dancers on beside tables, male hands groping a large bottom wrapped in pink chiffon’), Christopher Hitchens, and David Bowie — whom he recalls seeing in the early 1970s, ‘not yet world-famous, his dyed red hair flopping, dancing away keenly on his long skinny legs’. He lost me only once, in praising Robert Crumb’s disgusting cartoons, which ought to be the province of psychiatrists rather than critics.

Joanna Bourke, Professor of History at Birkbeck College, likes writing medium-length books about enormous subjects: The Story of Pain, What It Means to Be Human, Fear: A Cultural History, and now Wounding the World, a treatise on the social effects of military violence. Disagreeing with a writer’s premise is always a nasty business, but I can be pretty confident that she won’t kill me. Bourke is a pacifist who believes that war has insinuated itself into every aspect of American and British culture. Her thesis is that our legislatures, presses, schools and churches together form a sinuous continuum with our militaries: old men reading military history and young men killing each other over Xboxes and no one caring that our defence budgets are becoming ever more engorged.

But ‘armed conflicts between nations are not inevitable’, Bourke says. Soldiers should lay down their arms; families of the dead should complain about war films, or at least insist that they be made only by people like Oliver Stone; more songs in the vein of ‘Peace Train’ and ‘Imagine’ should be composed; radical feminists should join forces with Ayn Randians and demand that we cease being two nations of ‘armed philanthropists’. This is not ‘utopian’, she insists, because ‘disobedience and defiance are what it means to be human’, which is true, I suppose, if a bit narrow.

Still, Bourke is a charming writer. I found myself nodding along with her whenever my guard was down. Her research is very wide, and some of her facts and anecdotes are hard to argue with. Using images from Transformers in recruiting posters meant for teenagers does seem to be in very poor taste. Most of us would probably wish to be informed if our employers planned on selling discarded bits of our skin to a defence agency, which the Salisbury Health Care Trust did without the knowledge of its patients from 1995 to 2001. She is also admirably clear-eyed about the sexes, pooh-poohing feminists who pretend that girls are just as likely as boys to take an interest in shoot-’em-up games.

Bernard Shaw, that fountain of sanity, said: ‘If you don’t begin to be a revolutionist at the age of 20 then at 50 you will be an impossible old fossil.’ I like to think that in old age I might do the opposite and become a pacifist and a vegetarian. In fact, drinking gourmet coffee and chatting about nice things with Professor Bourke is what I imagine heaven will be like.

Bourke’s naivety and Buruma’s curious lack of an index notwithstanding, these are two worthwhile, intelligent books about violence; which, I’m afraid, will be with us until the trumpets blow.

'Theater of Cruelty: Art, Film and the Shadows of War', £15.99 and 'Wounding the World: How Military Violence and War-Play Invade Our Lives', £17 are available from the Spectator Bookshop. Tel: 08430 600033

 

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Show comments
  • Barba Rossa

    Dear…the world best known Dutch girl. Some one has done a fantastic PR job on the hiding Franks…in the meantime who. In the UK knows of the British woman who put herself in harms way to save Jewish children… Here’s a clue. First name Jane and she was Scottish.

    • OK, again. It is the Palestinians who kill indiscriminately on purpose and with the express intent of driving the Jews into the sea or death, whichever is most convenient. The Jews do damage as well, but in self-defense. It is an important distinction, but unfortunately too subtle for some.

      • rjbh

        “Self Defence”. War Crimes such as Firing White Phosphorus into Palestinian Refugee Camps show that Jews can be every bit as wicked as Muslims, Christians, and

    • Peter Elbling

      Dear Barba,
      You’re right but it’s interesting that you didn’t mention what happened in Rwanda where hundreds of thousands of people were killed or even Syria and Iraq right now where again the numbers again are in the hundreds of thousands or Afghanistan, or Ceylon or Tibet or…you name it. Seems to me your prejudice is showing.

      • rjbh

        Perhaps Peter..no ones perfect..and your right..i do have my prejudices same as everyone….however in my defence I site the story carries a picture of the Dutch girl who is famous way beyond her station…while the British woman who should be recognisedgoes virtually without recognition..

        the other countrys you mention…one only has a couple of paragraphs… not a book to list all the subjects one wants to rail against.

        After 5/10 mins my own concentration goes.

        • Peter Elbling

          There are many many people whose bravery is not recognized in all sorts of venues for any number of reasons but somehow you infer, although I’m sure you don’t mean to, that Ann promoted herself which of course she didn’t. I think one of the reasons that she, albeit her work, became famous was because of her youthful idealism, i.e. her belief that human beings are by nature good, she says as much in her writing, which given what happened to her and her family makes her story all the more poignant.

          • Barba Rossa

            Peter..you have given me an opportunity to telll a story, that has nagged me for several years

          • Barba Rossa

            I dare say those pupils will never learn of their local Heroine who was the only Scottish woman to perish in Auschwitz.

            No Ann did not promote her story, and it is a good story, however I have no doubt it represented an excellent opportunity for the PR people who have a different agenda, from that of the original.

            Jane Haining is remembered by little more than the people of Dumfriies.

            Perhaps it’s just the Scottish way.

          • Guest

            interesting that you do not seem to blame the germans and/or brits (how did she get to continental europe to end up in Auschwitz in she was in Scotland??), but the Jews, who were exterminated by the millions.

            you’re mouth foaming anti semitism is squeezing out of your pores like infected puss

          • Barba Rossa

            Cant say im interested in the thousands of Jews or the 40 million Russians…in this case just Jane Haining.

          • Guest

            reading your posts sounds more like your foaming at your mouth about jews, than being sad about the loss of your friend

            she was a hero and her life should be praised, instead her ‘friend’ smears her work by vilifying those she helped save

            you are mentally ill

          • Zach Rants

            Those pupils will never learn of many of their local heroes and heroines of their millennium, century, or likely their past week.
            Instead of lamenting, go, herald, and bring to wide attention the heroic acts of the courageous, selfless, and silenced – indeed, the virtuous and noble Ms. Haining.
            And if you ever deign to actually visit Jerusalem in the State of Israel, there in a memorial of the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations, on the Mount of Remembrance in Yad Vashem, you will find Jane Haining’s name engraved on a wall in honored memory, etched with around 25,000 others. Maybe you will even be fortunate to visit on a day of one of the many ceremonies hosted by survivor’s honoring, awarding, and disseminating their rescuer’s story, grace, sacrifice, and legacy.

          • Charlie in NY

            Zach: For those too busy to enter Jane Haining’s name in a Google search engine, here is a useful link that should answer everyone’s questions. In 2010, she was posthumously honored by the UK. Oddly enough, the problem may be the failure to teach Holocaust history in UK schools, reportedly (at least in some cases) for fear of offending certain students and their parents.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Haining

            As to the accusation that Israel murdered the Ziad Abu Ain, it is not supported by the known evidence at this point. The joint Israel-PA autopsy preliminary report establishes the cause of death as heart attack (his arteries were 80% occluded). That it was stress induced is still being examined. Some final test results are still awaited. Two interesting points. First, no video (and there have been several released) supports the sensational claims by Palestinian witnesses that Abu Ain was struck with either rifle butts or helmets. Second, according to a Sky News reporter on the scene, an Israeli medic on the scene was prevented from treating him by his Palestinian colleagues who drove him to the hospital where he died before arriving. The time line from the videos is not quite clear. For instance, there are videos showing him having difficulty breathing, but at this point, no one can say if this was shot before or after the incident. If before, his heart attack preceded the incident. If after, the incident may have been a factor in his heart attack. However, though Barba seems to believe otherwise, it is simply not the case that Israel is behind every Palestinian death.

          • Barba Rossa

            Charlie in NY…yes its standard practice to blame the victim for his own death especially when the Victim is Palestinian and those that caused it are Jews.

            furthermore..the subject of “The Holocaust” a reference to the “Jewish Holocaust” is a mere footnote of the real subject WW11 .

            Some 3 000, 000 Soviet POWs were accorded the same treatment..and what child gets to know that in Scottish schools…but im damn sure every Scottish bairn knows , and will parrot….

            6 Million Jews…dah dah…

            900 000 Leningrad civilians were starved to death by the Germans…they died defending their city..it was the Soviet suffering that we should be remembering…a whole lot more that those that claim …”The Holocaust” as their own

          • Barba Rossa

            One wonders as the Jews have their Rememberance every year…i believe the date was set by the Liberation of Auschwitz by the Red Army, do they ever give thanks to the efforts of the Soviets, and indeed the Western Allies..had it not been for supreme efforts and a willingness to shed blood to defeat the Nazi.. Not only would the Jews and Gypsies been wiped out in Europe the Slavs would have been turned into Slaves…etc etc…

          • Zach Rants

            Barbra, in response to your carefully researched and thought-out musings, I was writing to provide you lists of monuments, commemorations, and prayers said by adherents of Judaism in honor and thanksgiving of the Allies and welfare for their states and government, which are available to anyone with rudimentary skill in search engines.
            I realized sillily midway that this would likely do nothing to influence you or satisfy what I suspect is your desire for baseless hatred.
            I’d instead like to ask you one simple question:
            What is your thanks and remembrance of the acts of Western Allies that I presume you commemorate recurrently?

            As you are obviously so well-versed, surely you are aware of Hitler and Himmler’s outlined ‘Neuordnung Europas’ and the resultant implication that there are very few people alive today in Western Europe or Scotland who do not owe a debt or gratitude or thanks or moment’s pause to the valiant allied forces of 1945.
            As such, I simply would love to hear in detail your most recent commemoration.

          • Barba Rossa

            Zach..my father and both my fathers in law (married twice) were part of the Western effort. my dad in India and Burma facing the Japaneese Imperial army.

            for Great Britain the war started in 1939 when Britain made some attemmpt to save Poland from the Nazis.

            For the USSR the war started mid summer 1941.

            for the USDecember 1941

            its a widely held view in GB that the American claim to have won the war for the Wstern Allies, is usually metwith some derision. Sadly the

          • Barba Rossa

            in GB virtually nothing is taught about the Soviet War effort, so Scottish children are now unaware that “Russia” was even involved in WW11 bearing in mind that theRed Army accounted for 9 in every 10 German casualties, this is of course a strange ommission.

            Do I believe that Hitler had to be stopped, probably on balance Yes.

            He was, and the Nazis were at source unsavory. I have sympathy for German claims to lands that were taken from Germany after WW1, we did not have the wisdom to understand that what “Peace” we imposed on Germany in 1919 would lead to German WW11.

          • Barba Rossa

            Nazi attitude to the weaker eliments within Germany.. makes for uncomfotable reading. Society in the 21st centuray takes a dim view, but this is merely the latest fashion trends, and is certainly not born out of..”Enlightenment”

            The German Nazi attitude towards Jews is probably what you want me to comment on..I have no problem with that. If one takes what is acceptable today, Gaza.. a virtual Prison Camp. collective punishment, a trend to Dehumanise the inmates of Gaza. Then I see no problem with German attitude in 1939, but perhaps both are not should be acceptable.

          • rjbh

            my mother at the start of the war just 15.. worked in an air craft factory building wings for the Spitefire

          • Charlie in NY

            Barba: A recitation of the facts as they are currently known about the death of Abu Ain is not the same as blaming the victim. That you make that strawman argument reveals only an inability bordering on refusal to deal with fact instead of fantasy.
            As to the Holocaust, while you seek to minimize it under the “lots of people suffered and died, why are the Jews privileged” rubric, another well known fact stands in your way. In Hitler’s world view, he believed that the Jews as a People were responsible for all the evil that befell mankind and that they polluted its society. Among his highest war aims, therefore, was their complete destruction – this was of such importance, that even as it was evident to the German High Command that the war was lost, valuable materiel was diverted from the war effort to murder as many remaining Jews as possible. No other ethnic group was subject to such treatment, which is not to say that the many other millions were not murdered in cold blood as well. Context is important and, unfortunately for them, the European Jews were a special case.
            As a final point, having read your comments, beginning with your claim about Otto Frank, you should realize that for those who consider antisemitism to be a mental illness, you are providing some interesting data.

          • Barba Rossa

            Your pathetic post reveals what is well know in Scotland to be’ true.

            The Israeli tali wags the American dog, and with such attitude, why 9/11 not only happened, but why there was some justice to it being the targets hit could be’ considered economic.

            Not only that, but it explains why Pan Am 103 was brought down over Locherbie …shortly after a Yankee Pirate shot down the Iranian air Liner.

            My mother held an American passport till she decided to get rid of it in disgust of what America has become. This while B526ª

            No doubt it continues today with the recent revelation

          • Barba Rossa

            Your last point..Charlie..I have no way of knowing if Im insane or not, however I have no problem with my attitude to Jews or to anyone else, certainly i count amogst my heros Jews i consider a force for good, Noam Chomsky, and Bob Dylan to name just 2.

            Antisemitism a “Mental Illness” certainly an interesting theory. but possibly its because they are people as unsavoury as yourself. thankfully in Scotland there are much more decent people as there is in the US or the Zionist State for that matter, and, i would much rather be as insane as I am, as be..”Normal” as you.

          • Barba Rossa

            Zach

          • Zach Rants

            That will surely be a great day, when Hamas grants these rights in recognition of the value of it’s electorate not as human shields or human propaganda, but as human beings.

            But this is likely asking too much of a terror-oriented and racist governing body.

    • Shorne

      Israel was born out of the anti-Semitism Ms Haining so bravely opposed. The San
      Remo Conference of 1920 set out the area that was to be the Jewish Homeland,
      this was ratified by the League of Nations and later confirmed by the United
      Nations, the same conference ‘invented’ Iraq and Syria. Israel has only ever
      occupied 18% of the territory designated as for the Jewish homeland which is
      why it is a country the size of Wales with a population less than that of
      Greater London and it is surrounded by huge countries and organisations that want to
      destroy it. It is interesting that of all the ‘isms’ you list (isn’t your spell
      checker working by the way?) you fail to mention terrorism as personified by
      HAMAS Article 7 of whose charter calls for the death of all Jews not Israelis
      (i.e.Anti-Semitism not anti-Zionism). Talking of anti-Semitism earlier this
      year your fellow Scots managed to pack a whole year’s worth of anti-Semitic incidents including synagogue graffiti, threatening emails and phone calls, and two cases of incitement to break the law into one week, I wonder what Ms Haining would have made of that? Many Scottish Jews are now considering emigrating to Israel thus proving why that country’s continued existence is so vital.Israel admitted using white phosphorous to create smoke screens, two Israeli Generals were reprimanded as a result and, as Reuters have reported it has not been used again. When was any Palestinian Terrorist ever reprimanded by their own side?Instead sweets are handed out to children after each incident.

      Talking of children read this from last year

      “The official Palestinian Authority daily reported on a visit by the PA Minister of Health, Hani Abdeen, to Israel’s Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem. The daily noted that 30% of the child patients in Hadassah are Palestinians and that the Israeli hospital is training “60 Palestinian medical interns and specialist physicians who will be returning to the [Palestinian] Authority areas to carry out their work.” The hospital has a special program to train Palestinian doctors to treat cancer among children.”

      This programme continues, this is from Reuters last October
      “A daughter of the leader of Hamas in Gaza was admitted to an Israeli hospital for emergency medical treatment this month after she suffered complications from a routine procedure.”

      I agree that Ms Haining should be better known, although there is a memorial at Dunscore ,however she is numbered among the 21 Britons honoured as being Righteous Amongst the Nations at Yad Vashem in Israel and hence is known in that country, let us hope her memorial there is never damaged by a random HAMAS rocket.

      Your remarks about the Franks are quite repugnant and you should be ashamed, but probably won’t be.

    • Shorne

      Israel was born out of the anti-Semitism Ms Haining opposed. The San Remo Conference of 1920 set out the area that was to be the Jewish Homeland, this was ratified by the League of Nations and later
      confirmed by the United Nations, the same conference ‘invented’ Iraq and Syria. Israel has only ever occupied 18% of the territory designated as for the Jewish homeland which is why it is a country the size of Wales with a population less than that of Greater London and it is surrounded by countries and organisations that want to destroy it. It is interesting that of all the ‘isms’ you list you fail to mention terrorism as personified by HAMAS Article 7 of whose charter calls for the death of all Jews not Israelis (i.e.Anti-Semitism not anti-Zionism).
      Talking of anti-Semitism earlier this year your fellow Scots managed to pack a whole year’s worth of anti-Semitic incidents including Synagogue graffiti, threatening emails and phone calls, and two cases of incitement to break the law into one week. This has lead to many Scottish Jews considering emigration to Israel thus demonstrating why that country’s continued existence is vital.

      Israel did use white phosphorus to create smoke screens in 2009, two Generals were reprimanded as a result and Reuters has reported that it has not been used again. No Palestinian terrorist is ever reprimanded by his/her organisation; instead sweets are handed out to children
      after each attack.
      Talking of children this is from last year;
      “The official Palestine Authority daily reported on a visit by the PA
      Minister of Health, Hani Abdeen, to Israel’s Hadassah Hospital
      in Jerusalem.The daily noted that 30% of the child patients in Hadassah are Palestinians and that the Israeli hospital is training “60 Palestinian medical interns and specialist physicians who will be returning to the [Palestinian] Authorityareas to carry out their work.” The hospital has a special program to train Palestinian doctors to treat cancer among children.” This programme continues, this is from Reuters in October;
      “A daughter of the leader of Hamas in Gaza was admitted to an Israeli hospital for emergency medical treatment this month after she suffered complications from a routine procedure.”
      I agree Ms Haining should be better known apart from the memorial at Dunscore and road named after her in Budapest.
      However she is named as being Righteous Amongst the Nations at the Yad Vashem memorial in Israel and hence is honoured there. Let us hope her memorial is not struck by a HAMAS rocket.
      Your remarks about the Frank family add a whole new meaning to the word ‘repugnant.’

    • Guest

      FO you ignorant and vile imbecile!!

      • Barba Rossa

        lol lol you certainly have an entertainment value…i had to print your comments of just to show some elderly friends the wit of todays youth….

        • Guest

          as opposed to the vile antisemitic senility of the old farts?

    • Bumble Bee

      it’s so nice that even the strictest mental institutions allow internet time

    • Bumble Bee

      she was killed by Nazis, yet you seem to have an inexplicable hatred towards the Jews, who were exterminated by the millions

      and you’re using Anne Frank, for some sort of antisemitic rant?

      you’re clearly a very very sick individual and you should not be allowed to access a computer

      • Barba Rossa

        A Palestinian Peace Maker has just been killed to day by Israeli soldiers..it is also a senseless crime, I know you will wish to join me in condemning this wickedness.

        • Guest

          F*** him!

          and F*** you!

          • Barba Rossa

            It seems a tad like Hate Mail…perhaps you would like to meetith me some night in Kirkcaldy… We can discuss it over a wee dram.

  • Terry Field

    Human beings behave like turds because they gain advantage from slaughter. It is economically and emotionally extremely satisfying to murder the other lot who upset you, or who get in your way.
    Why dissemble?
    Plainly that explains all.

    • People upset me all the time, Terry, but I haven’t slaughtered anybody yet. Nor do most of us.

    • That most certainly explains all with regard to why bad people do bad things.

      The mystery that has plagued humanity since the beginning of time however, and is worth thorough investigation, is how and why good people do bad things.

      • Paulina

        “That most certainly explains all with regard to why bad people do bad things.” I presume you would define bad people as those who do bad things? Vicious circle, isn’t it?

  • Humans misbehave because of our awareness of our finite presence in time, something no other animal truly shares. All creatures fight over scarce resources; for humans the scarce resource that presses down on us the most is our limited time on earth and what we’ll be able to do with it; makes happiness seem like a zero sum game. Cruelty and selfishness ensues.

  • Raydar

    Sin.

  • Ford Corsair

    Wrong question. Humans behave atrociously because that’s what humans do. I think it’s more interesting to ask why, sometimes, we stop for a while.

  • Richard Lutz

    “The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves…” Julius Caesar (I, ii, 140-141)

    Human beings are self-serving, violence prone animals (great apes) who rather like exerting power over others, as do chimpanzees. That said, I like chimps and people in general, while I believe Christianity is the philosophy that can best tame the beast within us. Christians must serve God (a metaphor for our better nature) above all others, while our primary social duty is to ‘love thy neighbour.’

  • rjbh

    Jews murder Peace Making Palestinian …nothing new…can it be that this is how Jews are wired, then they complain Palestinians are Terrorist, a bit like, Black is White

    So it follows that Jews believe their own truth.

    Perhaps Noam Chomsky is trying to save Jews not just from Zionism…but trying to save Jews from themselves.

    • Guest

      if only those terrible terrible Jews were more like those peaceful and tolerant muslims, who can not live in peace with Sikhs, Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, Jews and even each other, in our countries, or in their own countries, amongst themselves…..

      poor peaceful Palestinians, can not live in peace with Christians, Jews, Homosexuals, Egyptians, Jordanians and Syrians, while evil Israel has had peace with Egypt and Jordan for over 30 years.

      Allah must bloody hate the peaceful Palestinians, otherwise why would he make them do the same thing over and over and over again for 68 years, while making Israel the strongest nation in the region – despite being the youngest, smallest and attacked form the first day of its’ creation.

      ALLAH HATES MUSLIMS.

  • somebodystolemynamefatboy

    What!
    Not like Crumb?

  • Paddy S

    Because we’re flawed from birth, (original sin) capable of doing good things and horrific things. We’re also tuned into doing what suits ourselves and our benefit which doesn’t always end well. Also power has a nasty effect on human nature, emboldening our darkest fantasies.

  • barfiller

    “dolls of Spanish dancers on beside tables” — Sorry, I was an editor until the publishing industry stopped caring.

  • gerontius redux

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